Talking about appearance in German. Here is the list of adjectives describing a person’s appearance and personality.

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Nusszopf is a classic German cake with hazelnut filling. It is made out of braided yeast dough and filled with almonds or hazelnuts. It’s a wonderful coffee time idea.

**Ingredients:**

*Dough*

4 cups all-purpose flour

1/2 cup sugar

1/2 tsp. salt

42g fresh yeast

1 cup lukewarm milk

1 egg

1/3 cup butter at room temperature

*Filling*

2 cups ground nuts

3 tbsp. sugar

2 tbsp. cocoa powder

1 tsp. ground cinnamon

1 egg

1/4 cup milk

*Glaze*

4 tbsp. powdered sugar

2 tbsp. lemon juice

2 tbsp. water

**Preparation:**

- Mix warm milk with the yeast in a large bowl until well combined. Add flour, sugar, salt and the egg and mix. Add the butter and knead for about 5 minutes. Cover with a kitchen towel and let rise in a warm place for 30 to 60 minutes.
- Mix the nuts, sugar, cocoa powder, cinnamon and the egg. Add the milk gradually, the mix should not get too runny but should be still easy to spread.
- Preheat the oven to 200°C. Roll out the dough in a rectangle and spread the nut mix on top. Roll up tight from one side. Place the roll on a greased baking sheet in front of you and cut the roll from the middle to one end with a sharp knife. Braid the two parts by laying one over the other while turning the inside out. You should see the layers with the filling when done. Do the same with the other side. Bake for 35 minutes on the lowest level.
- Mix powdered sugar with lemon juice and water. Spread it over the hot braided Nusszopf.

Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freiherr von Münchhausen, also known as “the baron of lies” (born May 11, 1720, Bodenwerder, Hanover – died February 22, 1797, Bodenwerder), initially served as a page to Prince Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig, and later as a cornet, lieutenant and cavalry captain with a Russian regiment in two Turkish wars. In 1760 he retired to his estates as a country gentleman.

He became famous around Hannover as a narrator of extraordinary tales about his life as a soldier, hunter, and sportsman. After the death of his first wife, Münchhausen married a 17-year old noblewoman. This marriage was an unhappy one which constantly drove him to debt and caused scandals.

A collection of extraordinary tales appeared anonymously in the magazine *Vademecum für lustige Leute* (1781-1783), all of them attributed to the Baron, though several can be traced to much earlier sources.

The man who created the Münchhausen myth was a family friend, a penniless scholar and librarian professor from Kassel, Rudolf Erich Raspe (1737-1794), who had had to flee England because of thefts. Raspe used the earlier stories as basic material, extended it, translated it into English, and published it anonymously in a small volume in London in 1785: *Baron Munchhausens Narrative of His Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia*. The book was a great success and the second edition was translated into German in 1786, in 1798 further extended with eight stories by the poet Gottfried August Bürger (1747-1894) and soon became a truly popular book.

The book became such a sensation that a year later, a German translation of Raspe’s anonymous book was published in Germany under the title the “Marvelous Travels on Water and Land: The Campaigns and Comical Adventures of the Baron of Münchhausen as commonly told over a bottle of wine at a table of friends”. The German version was even further expanded and exaggerated. Münchausen felt his honor wounded and reputation at stake. He attempted to take the translator, Godfried Bürger, to trial. However, the case was thrown out, as the judge stated that Burger had merely translated the work of an unknown author in England, and therefore was not at fault for any damage to Münchausen’s reputation. The trial never advanced beyond this point.

From that time on, the Baron knew no rest: he had been ridiculed and accused of lying, and had to hire servants to chase away gawkers from his estate with sticks, curious fans hoping to get a glimpse of the ‘King of Lies’.

It has been reported that the Baron suffered greatly from his new reputation of being insane, dying alone and childless in his home town of Bodenwerder. His stories leave a legacy of the tale of a man trying to regain his dignity from the world around him, and at the same time they inspire future generations of imagination with their impossibility, wit, and magic.

Georg Cantor was an outstanding violinist, but an even more outstanding mathematician. He was born on March 3, 1845, in Saint Petersburg, Russia, where he lived until he was eleven. Thereafter, the family moved to Germany, and Cantor received his remaining education at Darmstradt, Zürich, Berlin and (almost inevitably) Göttingen before marrying and settling at the University of Halle, where he was to spend the rest of his career.

Georg Cantor invented set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor’s method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an “infinity of infinities”. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor’s work is of great philosophical interest, a fact of which he was well aware.

Georg Cantor began his career by teaching in a Berlin girls’ school for a brief period of time. He then accepted a position at the University of Halle, where he spent his entire career. He joined as a lecturer in 1869 and was promoted to assistant professor in 1872, and full professor in 1879.

To attain the latter rank at the age of 34 was a notable accomplishment, but Cantor desired a chair at a more prestigious university, in particular at Berlin, at that time the leading German university. However, his work encountered too much opposition for that to be possible. Kronecker, who headed mathematics at Berlin until his death in 1891, became increasingly uncomfortable with the prospect of having Cantor as a colleague, perceiving him as a “corrupter of youth” for teaching his ideas to a younger generation of mathematicians. Worse yet, Kronecker, a well-established figure within the mathematical community and Cantor’s former professor, disagreed fundamentally with the direction of Cantor’s work ever since he intentionally delayed the publication of Cantor’s first major publication in 1874.

Kronecker, now seen as one of the founders of the constructive viewpoint in mathematics, disliked much of Cantor’s set theory because it asserted the existence of sets satisfying certain properties, without giving specific examples of sets whose members did indeed satisfy those properties. Whenever Cantor applied for a post in Berlin, he was declined, and it usually involved Kronecker, so Cantor came to believe that Kronecker’s stance would make it impossible for him ever to leave Halle.

Writing decades after Cantor’s death, Wittgenstein lamented that mathematics is “ridden through and through with the pernicious idioms of set theory”, which he dismissed as “utter nonsense” that is “laughable” and “wrong”. Cantor’s recurring bouts of depression from 1884 to the end of his life have been blamed on the hostile attitude of many of his contemporaries, though some have explained these episodes as probable manifestations of a bipolar disorder.

The harsh criticism has been matched by later accolades. In 1904, the Royal Society awarded Cantor its Sylvester Medal, the highest honor it can confer for work in mathematics. David Hilbert defended it from its critics by declaring: “From his paradise that Cantor with us unfolded, we hold our breath in awe; knowing, we shall not be expelled.”

In 1874, Cantor married Vally Guttmann. They had six children, the last (Rudolph) born in 1886. Cantor was able to support a family despite modest academic pay, thanks to his inheritance from his father.

After Cantor’s 1884 hospitalization, there is no record that he was in any sanatorium again until 1899. Soon after that second hospitalization, Cantor’s youngest son Rudolph died suddenly on December 16 (Cantor was delivering a lecture on his views on Baconian theory and William Shakespeare), and this tragedy drained Cantor of much of his passion for mathematics. Cantor was again hospitalized in 1903. One year later, he was outraged and agitated by a paper presented by Julius König at the Third International Congress of Mathematicians. The paper attempted to prove that the basic tenets of transfinite set theory were false. Since the paper had been read in front of his daughters and colleagues, Cantor perceived himself as having been publicly humiliated. Although Ernst Zermelo demonstrated less than a day later that König’s proof had failed, Cantor remained shaken, and momentarily questioning God. Cantor suffered from chronic depression for the rest of his life, for which he was excused from teaching on several occasions and repeatedly confined in various sanatoria. The events of 1904 preceded a series of hospitalizations at intervals of two or three years.

The Royal Society awarded Cantor its Sylvester Medal, the highest honor it can confer for work in mathematics, in 1904.

Cantor retired in 1913, living in poverty and suffering from malnourishment during World War I. The public celebration of his 70th birthday was canceled because of the war. In June 1917, he entered a sanatorium for the last time and continually wrote to his wife asking to be allowed to go home. Georg Cantor had a fatal heart attack on January 6, 1918, in the sanatorium where he had spent the last year of his life.

This braided sweet yeast bread with raisins can be your favorite breakfast. It’s super moist, it’s fluffy and it has a subtle sweet taste.

**Ingredients:**

6 cups all-purpose flour

500 ml milk

150 g butter at room temperature

1/2 cup sugar

2 tbsp dry active yeast

1/2 tsp salt

1/2 cup raisins

1 egg (for brushing the bread before baking)

**Preparation:**

- Mix the ingredients (except for raisins and egg) together.
- Let rise in a warm place until it doubles in size.
- Add raisins and distribute evenly.
- Cut the dough in half, then each half in three pieces and roll out thin long ropes. Braid each half of the dough, and then let rise for another 20 mins.
- Beat the egg slightly with a fork and spread it on the top of both loaves.
- Bake for 40 mins at 175°C.

The Wieskirche, or Wies Church, is one of the most important places of pilgrimage in southern Germany.

It is situated between Steingaden and Wildsteig on the Romantic Road – or, to be more accurate, slightly off the road on a country lane to the small hamlet of Wies.

The Pilgrimage Church of Wies is an oval rococo church, designed in the late 1740s by brothers J. B. and Dominikus Zimmermann, the latter of whom lived nearby for the last eleven years of his life.

The Wieskirche is also one of the most famous works from the Rococo period of art and architecture and its position close to the Romantic Road, the religious attraction of Oberammergau and the Passion Play and the historic buildings of Neuschwanstein and Hohenschwangau ensure that it is popular with many coach tours and day-trips from surrounding villages and towns.

Like many pilgrimage churches in the area, the prominence of the Wieskirche came about through a religious “wonder”.

In this case, it was a fairly prosaic statue of the “Scourged Saviour” which had been taken from the inn of the monastery in Steingaden by a farmer’s wife in Wies. In 1738 they claimed that they had seen tears in the eyes of the statue at their evening prayers.

Eventually more and more visitors came to see the statue and to pray and a new building was needed to accommodate them (and, of course, to promote the religious wonder and the economic benefits to the area).

In the mid-18th century the current church was built by the Zimmermann brothers, who were local artists and architects whose work in this period can be found all over Europe. The style is the elaborate gilt, stucco and art mixed in with white that was the feature of this Rococo epoch and which can be found in other Bavarian and Tyrolean churches and historic buildings.

The church was renovated in the 1980s to safeguard the original decoration and to bring the design more in line with the concepts of the artists at the time. It is on the list of UNESCO World Heritage protected buildings.

The church is of course used for normal purposes – visitors should note that sightseeing is not permitted during church services – but the principal Pilgrimage festival, the Feast of Christ’s Tears, is held on the first Sunday after June 14.

Carl Friedrich Gauss, original name Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss, (born April 30, 1777, Brunswick – died February 23, 1855, Göttingen, Hanover), German mathematician, generally regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time for his contributions to number theory, geometry, probability theory, geodesy, planetary astronomy, the theory of functions, and potential theory (including electromagnetism).

Carl Friedrich Gauss is sometimes referred to as the “Prince of Mathematicians” and the “greatest mathematician since antiquity”. He has had a remarkable influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history’s most influential mathematicians.

Gauss was a child prodigy. There are many anecdotes concerning his precocity as a child, and he made his first ground-breaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager.

At just three years old, he corrected an error in his father payroll calculations, and he was looking after his father’s accounts on a regular basis by the age of 5. At the age of 7, he is reported to have amazed his teachers by summing the integers from 1 to 100 almost instantly (having quickly spotted that the sum was actually 50 pairs of numbers, with each pair summing to 101, total 5,050). By the age of 12, he was already attending gymnasium and criticizing Euclid’s geometry.

Although his family was poor and working class, Gauss’ intellectual abilities attracted the attention of the Duke of Brunswick, who sent him to the Collegium Carolinum at 15, and then to the prestigious University of Göttingen (which he attended from 1795 to 1798). It was as a teenager attending university that Gauss discovered (or independently rediscovered) several important theorems.

At 15, Gauss was the first to find any kind of a pattern in the occurrence of prime numbers, a problem which had exercised the minds of the best mathematicians since ancient times. Although the occurrence of prime numbers appeared to be almost completely random, Gauss approached the problem from a different angle by graphing the incidence of primes as the numbers increased. He noticed a rough pattern or trend: as the numbers increased by 10, the probability of prime numbers occurring reduced by a factor of about 2 (e.g. there is a 1 in 4 chance of getting a prime in the number from 1 to 100, a 1 in 6 chance of a prime in the numbers from 1 to 1,000, a 1 in 8 chance from 1 to 10,000, 1 in 10 from 1 to 100,000, etc). However, he was quite aware that his method merely yielded an approximation and, as he could not definitively prove his findings, and kept them secret until much later in life.

Gauss’s first significant discovery, in 1792, was that a regular polygon of 17 sides can be constructed by ruler and compass alone. Its significance lies not in the result but in the proof, which rested on a profound analysis of the factorization of polynomial equations and opened the door to later ideas of Galois theory. His doctoral thesis of 1797 gave a proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra: every polynomial equation with real or complex coefficients has as many roots (solutions) as its degree (the highest power of the variable). Gauss’s proof, though not wholly convincing, was remarkable for its critique of earlier attempts. Gauss later gave three more proofs of this major result, the last on the 50th anniversary of the first, which shows the importance he attached to the topic.

Gauss’s recognition as a truly remarkable talent, though, resulted from two major publications in 1801. Foremost was his publication of the first systematic textbook on algebraic number theory, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. This book begins with the first account of modular arithmetic, gives a thorough account of the solutions of quadratic polynomials in two variables in integers, and ends with the theory of factorization mentioned above. This choice of topics and its natural generalizations set the agenda in number theory for much of the 19th century, and Gauss’s continuing interest in the subject spurred much research, especially in German universities.

The second publication was his rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres. Its original discovery, by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi in 1800, had caused a sensation, but it vanished behind the Sun before enough observations could be taken to calculate its orbit with sufficient accuracy to know where it would reappear. Many astronomers competed for the honor of finding it again, but Gauss won. His success rested on a novel method for dealing with errors in observations, today called the method of least squares. Thereafter Gauss worked for many years as an astronomer and published a major work on the computation of orbits—the numerical side of such work was much less onerous for him than for most people. As an intensely loyal subject of the duke of Brunswick and, after 1807 when he returned to Göttingen as an astronomer, of the duke of Hanover, Gauss felt that the work was socially valuable.

In fact, Gauss often withheld publication of his discoveries. As a student at Göttingen, he began to doubt the a priori truth of Euclidean geometry and suspected that its truth might be empirical. For this to be the case, there must exist an alternative geometric description of space. Rather than publish such a description, Gauss confined himself to criticizing various a priori defenses of Euclidean geometry. It would seem that he was gradually convinced that there exists a logical alternative to Euclidean geometry. However, when the Hungarian János Bolyai and the Russian Nikolay Lobachevsky published their accounts of a new, non-Euclidean geometry about 1830, Gauss failed to give a coherent account of his own ideas. It is possible to draw these ideas together into an impressive whole, in which his concept of intrinsic curvature plays a central role, but Gauss never did this. Some have attributed this failure to his innate conservatism, others to his incessant inventiveness that always drew him on to the next new idea, still others to his failure to find a central idea that would govern geometry once Euclidean geometry was no longer unique. All these explanations have some merit, though none has enough to be the whole explanation.

Gauss’ achievements were not limited to pure mathematics, however. During his surveying years, he invented the heliotrope, an instrument that uses a mirror to reflect sunlight over great distances to mark positions in a land survey. In later years, he collaborated with Wilhelm Weber on measurements of the Earth’s magnetic field, and invented the first electric telegraph. In recognition of his contributions to the theory of electromagnetism, the international unit of magnetic induction is known as the gauss.

After Gauss’s death in 1855, the discovery of so many novel ideas among his unpublished papers extended his influence well into the remainder of the century.

Gauss’s personal life was overshadowed by the early death of his first wife, Johanna Osthoff, with whom he had three children, in 1809, soon followed by the death of one child, Louis. Gauss plunged into a depression from which he never fully recovered. He married again, to Johanna’s best friend, Friderica Wilhelmine Waldeck, commonly known as Minna. They also had three children. When his second wife died in 1831 after a long illness, one of his daughters, Therese, took over the household and cared for Gauss for the rest of his life.

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