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Flädlesuppe, or German pancake soup, is basically a bit like chicken noodle soup except with strips of pancake in the broth. This southern German favorite is perfect as a first course for lunch on cold days.
Serve this soup soon after assembling, because the pancakes soak up the broth and, eventually, will fall apart.
1/2 cup all-purpose flour
1/3 cup milk (plus 1tbsp)
4 cups beef stock
10 chives (around 2 per bowl)
Aloysius Alzheimer (June 14, 1864 – December 19, 1915), known as Alois Alzheimer, was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. Alzheimer is credited with identifying the first published case of “presenile dementia”, which Kraepelin would later identify as Alzheimer’s disease.
From his youth Alois Alzheimer excelled in science and attended the universities of Berlin, Tübingen and Wurzburg, where he wrote his doctoral thesis and graduated with a medical degree in 1887. His parents had taught him that the strong look after the weak, and he set out to dedicate his life to that maxim.
In 1888, Alois Alzheimer began his residency at the Hospital for the Mentally Ill and Epileptics in Frankfurt, Germany, headed by Emil Sioli, a progressive psychiatrist who put “no restraints” on Alzheimer’s work. He stayed there for seven years, eventually being promoted to senior physician. During this time, Alzheimer studied psychiatry and his passion of neuropathology. He partnered with Franz Nissl, the distinguished neurologist, and together they conducted extensive investigations on the pathology of the nervous system. Their work resulted in the six-volume Histologic and Histopathology Studies of the Cerebral Cortex, published between 1906 and 1918.
While at the Frankfurt asylum, Alzheimer also met Emil Kraepelin, one of the best-known German psychiatrists of the time. Kraepelin became a mentor to Alzheimer, and the two worked very closely for the next several years. When Kraepelin moved to Munich to work at the Royal Psychiatric Hospital in 1903, he invited Alzheimer to join him. At the time, Kraepelin was doing clinical research on psychosis in senile patients; Alzheimer, on the other hand, was more interested in the lab work of senile illnesses.
In 1901, Alzheimer observed a patient at the Frankfurt Asylum named Auguste Deter. The 51-year-old patient had strange behavioral symptoms, including a loss of short-term memory; she became his obsession over the coming years. Auguste Deter was a victim of the politics of the time in the psychiatric community; the Frankfurt asylum was too expensive for her husband. Herr Deter made several requests to have his wife moved to a less expensive facility, but Alzheimer intervened in these requests. Ms. Deter remained at the Frankfurt asylum, where Alzheimer had made a deal to receive her records and brain upon her death.
On 8 April 1906, Frau Deter died, and Alzheimer had her medical records and brain brought to Munich where he was working in Kraepelin’s laboratory. With two Italian physicians, he used the staining techniques of Bielschowsky to identify amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These brain anomalies would become identifiers of what later became known as Alzheimer’s disease.
During Alzheimer’s tenure at the psychiatric clinic in Munich, students from various countries attended his classes and marveled at his teaching. He was well known for his hands-on style, moving among the different microscope workstations and discussing each student’s observations. Years later, many would recall the sight of Alzheimer bowed over a microscope with his pince-nez glasses dangling around his neck and a cigar in his mouth, which he would set on the workstation table to conduct his explanations. It was said that at the end of the day there would be a cigar stump at nearly every student’s workstation.
In April 1894, Alzheimer married Cecilia Geisenheimer, and the couple went on to have three children. The marriage made him financially independent, helping him support his own research. Cecilia died in 1901, and Alzheimer’s single younger sister, Elisabeth, came to Frankfurt to raise the children.
Alzheimer died of heart failure on December 19, 1915, aged 51, in Breslau, Silesia (present-day Wrocław, Poland). He was buried on December 23, 1915, next to his wife in the Hauptfriedhof in Frankfurt am Main.
Hands down the best red currant cake out there – Träubleskuchen! The etymology of its name is very curious. In Swabian, anything can – and will – be diminuted by adding the suffix -le to the noun. Thus a car – Auto – becomes an Autole, a little car, and a house – Haus – a Häusle, a small house. Red currants look a little bit like small grapes, which are Trauben, hence in Swabian they are called Träuble, or small grapes. A word of warning, if you are ever in Germany: before asking for this cake, check your map. Outside the Swabian-speaking parts, red currants are called Johannisbeeren, and nobody will have a clue as to what you mean by a “small grape cake”.
200 g flour
60 g sugar
½ packet ( 8 g) baking powder
1 packet ( 16 g) vanilla sugar
125 g butter
600 g red currants (washed and de-stalked)
3 large egg whites
75 g sugar
125 g ground almonds
3 large egg whites
75 g sugar
The Island of Reichenau is located in southern Germany. It lies almost due west of the city of Konstanz, between the Gnadensee and the Untersee, two parts of Lake Constance. With a total land surface of 4.3 sq. km and a circumference of 11 km, the island is 4.5 km long and 1.5 km wide at its greatest extent. The highest point, the Hochwart, stands some 43 m above the lake surface and 438.7 m above mean sea level.
The island was declared a World Heritage Site in 2000 because of its monastery, the Abbey of Reichenau. The abbey’s Münster (minster church) is dedicated to the Virgin and Saint Mark. Two further churches were built on the island consecrated to Saint George and to Saints Peter and Paul. The famous artworks of Reichenau include (in the church of St George) the Ottonian murals of miracles of Christ, unique survivals from the 10th century. The abbey’s bailiff was housed in a two-storey stone building to which two more storeys of timber framing were added in the 14th century, one of the oldest timber-frame buildings in south Germany.
Reichenau is connected to the mainland by a causeway, completed in 1838, which is intersected between the ruins of Schopflen Castle and the eastern end of Reichenau Island by a 10-m wide and 95-m long waterway, the Bruckgraben. A low road bridge allows the passage of ordinary boats but not of sailing-boats.
The Benedictine Abbey of Reichenau was founded in 724 by the itinerant Saint Pirmin, who is said to have fled Spain ahead of the Moorish invaders, with patronage that included Charles Martel, and, more locally, Count Berthold of the Ahalolfinger and the Alemannian Duke Santfrid I (Nebi). Pirmin’s conflict with Santfrid resulted in his leaving Reichenau in 727. Under his successor Haito the monastery began to flourish. It gained influence in the Carolingian dynasty, under Abbot Waldo of Reichenau (740–814), by educating the clerks who staffed Imperial and ducal chanceries. Abbot Reginbert of Reichenau (-846) built up the important book collection. Abbot Walahfrid Strabo (842–849), who was educated at Reichenau, was renowned as a poet and Latin scholar.
The Abbey stood along a main north–south highway between Germany and Italy, where the lake passage eased the arduous route. The Abbey of Reichenau housed a school, and a scriptorium and artists’ workshop, that has a claim to having been the largest and artistically most influential centre for producing lavishly illuminated manuscripts in Europe during the late 10th and early 11th centuries, often known as the Reichenau School. An example of the scriptorium’s production is the Pericopes of Henry II, made for the Emperor, now in Munich. Reichenau has preserved its precious relics, which include the pitcher from the wedding at Cana.
German red cabbage recipes, also known as Rotkohl, Rotkraut, and Blaukraut, are among those best vegetable recipes that Germans love! They go so well with dishes like rouladen and meat loaf. It’s a traditional German side dish that goes so well with almost anything.
2 – 3 tbsp butter, oil, or bacon fat
1 onion, diced
1 head red cabbage, shredded
salt, pepper, sugar
ground cloves, vinegar, cornstarch
German is one of the largest groups of Indo-Germanic languages. It is used as the official language of Germany, Austria and Liechtenstein, and is a co-official language in Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the European Union.. The history of the language begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. During the migration period Old High German dialects were separated from Old Saxon.
The earliest testimonies of Old High German are from scattered Elder Futhark inscriptions, from the 6th century AD; and the oldest coherent texts (the Hildebrandslied, the Muspilli and the Merseburg Incantations) date back to the 9th century.
During a period of several hundred years Germany was divided into many different states. Within the Holy Roman Empire the Germanic speaking area was divided into Alemannic, Bavarian, Frankish, Saxon and Frisian. The writers of that time tried to write in a way that could be understood by the people of the largest possible area. It was an important road to a unification of the language.
There are three main periods in the history of the German language:
1. Old German (c. 750 – c. 1050);
2. Middle German (c.1050 – c.1500);
3. Modern German (c.1500 to the present).
In the first period there was no standard language. The formation of the language system was influenced by the High German consonant shift. The result of this sound change is the peculiar consonant system of German, which remains different from all other West Germanic languages. But it must be admitted, that grammatical system of Old High German has much in common with Old English, Old Dutch and Old Saxon. By the mid-11th century there was a simplification of the inflectional grammar of German, caused by the reduction of vowels in unstressed syllables. That’s why 1050 is considered to be the start of the Middle High German period.
In the middle period a relatively uniform written language developed in government, but Middle High German had no standardized spelling. Different combination of certain dialects of Middle High German replaced the Latin that had been widely used in official writings of that time. Texts were written in the Latin alphabet, in Gothic minuscules.
The main features were:
1. The absence of the marking of vowel length;
2. The absence of the marking of umlauted vowels;
3. The usage of the semi-vowels /j/ and /w/ in the original texts.
The Middle Saxon language was spoken from about 1100 to 1500, splitting into West Low Saxon and East Low Saxon. The neighbor languages were Middle Dutch in the West and Middle High German in the South, later substituted by Early New High German.
The period of Early New High German started with the Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible (the New Testament in 1522 and the Old Testament, completed in 1534). This work was based on already developed language, which was the most widely understood at this time.
Copies of the Bible had a long list for each region, where unknown words were translated into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics tried to create their own Catholic standard, which differed from ‘Protestant German’ only in some minor details. A widely accepted standard was created in the middle of the 18th century; it was the end of Early New High German.
Until about 1800, standard German was almost solely a written language.
During the 18th century a number of outstanding writers gave modern standard German its modern form – the language of church and state, education and literature. The written standard influenced a corresponding norm for spoken High German, used in education, theater, and broadcasting. There are also many German dialects that differ substantially from standard German, not only in pronunciation but also in grammar.
The first dictionary of the Brothers Grimm remains the most comprehensive guide to the lexicon of the German language. It was issued in 16 parts between 1852 and 1860.
Grammatical and orthographic rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook in 1880. Later, in 1901, this was declared the standard definition of the German language. Standard German orthography went unrevised until 1998, when the German spelling reform of 1996 was officially promulgated by governmental representatives of Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland.
Another coffee time staple – Apfelkuchen! Moist and buttery cake made with fresh apples baked into a dense butter dough and topped with sugar, it is the perfect dessert.
Heinrich Hertz (born on February 22, 1857 in Hamburg – died on January 1, 1894 in Bonn) was a German scientist and physicist who became the first scientist to prove that electromagnetic waves did indeed have an existence and in so doing he proved what had only been a theory first put forwards by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
His theories went on to be developed into what later came to be known as radio waves, however, it is also important to point out that another huge conclusion from his research on electromagnetic waves was that he was also able to prove that both light and heat are different forms of electromagnetic radiations.
Other than being a gifted exponent of the sciences from an early age, Hertz was also a linguist who excelled in learning new languages and it is not a surprise that he was trained in languages like Sanskrit and Arabic which were rarely learned by students at the time. Last but not the least, Hertz might have had a relatively short career compared to other scientists of the era but there is absolutely no denying the fact that he achieved a lot in his short career that many others would have been proud of and needless to say he has left behind a rich body of work that would be studied in universities for years.
At age 6, Heinrich began studying at the Dr. Wichard Lange Private School in Hamburg. The school operated without religious influence, it used child-centered teaching methods, taking account of students’ individual differences. It was also strict, the students were expected to work hard and compete with one another to be top of the class. Heinrich enjoyed his time at school, and indeed was top of his class.
Heinrich’s mother was especially passionate about his education. Realizing he had a natural talent for making things and for drawing, she arranged draftsmanship lessons for him on Sundays at a technical college. He started these at age 11.
At 15, Heinrich left Dr. Lange’s school to be educated at home. He received tutoring in Greek and Latin as well as the sciences and mathematics, to prepare him for the exams. He excelled at languages, a gift he seems to have inherited from his father.
Professor Redslob, a language specialist who gave Heinrich some tuition in Arabic, advised his father that Heinrich should become a student of oriental languages. Never before had he met anyone with greater natural talent.
In the evenings he worked with his hands. He learned to operate a lathe. He built models, and then began constructing increasingly sophisticated scientific apparatus, such as a spectroscope. He used this apparatus to do his own physics and chemistry experiments.
After graduating from school and completing his army service, the 20-year-old Hertz moved to Munich to begin an engineering course in October 1877. Next year, he moved to the University of Berlin and began working in the laboratories of the great physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.
Helmholtz must have recognized a rare talent in Hertz, immediately asking him to work on a problem whose solution he was particularly interested in. The problem was the subject of a fierce debate between Helmholtz and another physicist by the name of Wilhelm Weber. The University of Berlin’s Philosophy Department, with Helmholtz’s encouragement, had offered a prize to anyone who could solve the problem: Does electricity move with inertia? Alternatively, we could frame the question in the form: Does electric current have mass? Or, as framed by Hertz: Does electric current have kinetic energy?
Hertz started work on the problem and quickly fell into a pleasant routine: attending a lecture each morning in either analytical dynamics or electricity & magnetism, carrying out experiments in the laboratory until 4pm, then reading, calculating, and thinking in the evening. In August 1879, aged 22, Hertz won the prize – a gold medal. In a series of highly sensitive experiments he had demonstrated that if electric current has any mass at all, it must be incredibly small. We have to bear in mind that when Hertz carried out this work the electron – the carrier of electric current – had not even been discovered. J. J. Thomson’s discovery was made in 1897, 18 years after Hertz’s work.
Recognizing the incredible talent he had in his laboratory, Helmholtz now asked Hertz to compete for a prize offered by the Berlin Academy: verifying James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. Maxwell had stated in 1864 that light was an electromagnetic wave and that other types of electromagnetic wave could exist. Instead of working for the prize, he carried out a masterful three-month project on electromagnetic induction.
He wrote this up as a thesis. In February 1880, at the age of 23, his thesis brought him the award of a doctorate in physics. Helmholtz quickly appointed him an assistant professor.
Following his appointment at the University of Karlsruhe in 1885, Heinrich Hertz’s research on electromagnetic waves went up to a new level and during the next four years he managed to generate electromagnetic waves in the laboratory. Consequently, he successfully proved that both light as well as heat were nothing but electromagnetic radiations. The waves came to be called Hertzian in his honor.
In 1886, Heinrich Hertz started working on contact mechanics. His work on contact mechanics went on to inspire future research in the field many years later. He propounded his ideas in two separate papers.
The University of Bonn appointed Heinrich Hertz as the professor in physics in the year 1889 and that was where he was employed till the end of his career. It was during his tenure at the University of Bonn that Hertz found that thin metals could be penetrated by cathode rays. It was later developed into the ‘ray effect’. He also wrote the manuscript of the book ‘The Principles of Mechanics Presented in a New Form’ while he was employed at the University.
Heinrich Hertz got married to Elisabeth Doll who was a lecturer of geometry at the University of Karlsruhe. They couple had two daughters, named Johanna and Mathilde. Mathilde followed in the footsteps of his parents and excelled in academia as a biologist. Heinrich Hertz died on January 1, 1894 in Bonn due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, also known as GPA. Two years prior to his death he had an operation to cure migraine but that had led to complications that culminated in his death, at a very young age of 36.
Another recipe of the famous potato salad – because you can’t get enough of it! This one’s hot – literally!
1.5 kg medium-size red potatoes, quartered
400 g bacon, cut into 1 cm pieces
1 large yellow onion, minced
1 cup white vinegar
3 tablespoons coarse or grainy mustard
2 tablespoons sugar
½ cup parsley, chopped
Freshly ground black pepper